INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 17, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2022
A PUBLICATION OF THE
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY (IAMOT)
Reno, NV 89511, U.S.A.
NOVEMBER 2022 VOLUME 17 NUMBER 6 IJMOT ISSN: 1553-0396
Banmali S Rawat

Editor-In-Chief

MESSAGE FROM EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
MICROWAVE RELATED PAPERS
Manuscript Title:4-Port 4G/5G MIMO Antenna System Adopting TaperedSlot Decoupling Mechanism
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-3-252331
Abstract:
In this article, a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna design is presented for 4G/5G mobile applications. Only four ports are sufficient for this design since the MIMO element itself is a dual-band slotted antenna that operates at both microwave and millimeter-wave (MMW) frequency bands simultaneously. The complete filtenna (MIMO element) consists of rectangular slotted ground plane, embedded MMW element, two tuning stubs, and a bandstop filter (BSF) based on in-line coupled lines and 3-open circuited stubs (OCSs). Moreover, a tapered slot decoupling mechanism is adopted that significantly reduces the mutual coupling between MIMO elements. For demonstration, two design prototypes of the MIMO antenna system are fabricated and measured. The overall size of the substrate is 115 x 65 x 0.254 mm3 which makes the proposed MIMO system suitable for future mobile handheld applications. The achieved isolation is better than 24 dB and the envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) values are kept below 0.0006 between MIMO elements.
Authors:Osama M. Dardeer, Hala A. Elsadek, Hadia M. Elhennawy, Esmat A. Abdallah
Submitted On:27-03-2022
Pages:582-591
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 87
Manuscript Title:A Compact Super Wideband Antenna with Controllable Dual Notch Band Capability
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-5-252367
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel super wideband (SWB) antenna with dual band notch capability is designed and analyzed for wide band applications. The proposed antenna consists of a pentagonal shaped radiator, beveled-shaped partial ground plane with slot and U-shaped parasitic strips. The beveled-shaped defected ground structure with rectangular slot helps to realize wideband characteristics from 2.4 to 28.2 GHz. Independent control of the notch band's center frequency and bandwidth is achieved by using U-shaped parasitic strips. This key feature is achieved in the WiMAX (3.3 to 3.7 GHz) and WLAN (5.1 to 5.9 GHz) bands. Furthermore, it exhibits a stable radiation pattern and offers acceptable gain over the entire operating bandwidth with sharp decrease in gain at the notches. The percentage bandwidth of 169% is achieved with a bandwidth dimension ratio (BDR) of 6986. Group delay is less than 1 ns in the entire operating bandwidth except at the notch bands. The measured reflection and radiation characteristics of fabricated SWB antenna are in good agreement with the simulation results. The proposed antenna has the advantage of simple design and compact size with an overall dimension of 18 x 21 x 1.6 mm3. The performance of the proposed antenna is superior compared to reported antenna designs in terms of controllable sharp notches and size for the bandwidth achieved.
Authors:Bhushan V. Kadam , Lucy J. Gudino , Ramesha C. K., Joseph X. Rodrigues
Submitted On:15-05-2022
Pages:592-603
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 44
Manuscript Title:The Effect of Shape on Microstrip Folded Dipole Antenna on The Compatibility between Simulation and Experimental Method
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-5-252380
Abstract:

The folded dipole microstrip antenna has been designed to increase the operating frequency and stabilize the radiation pattern. In this study, there are three types of folded dipole microstrip antennas. The folded dipole microstrip antenna is designed of copper and coated with FR-4. After that, the three types of antennas have measured using two methods. The simulation method uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD), but the experimental method uses a vector network analyzer (VNA). Based on the experimental results, the addition of a resonator on the second type of microstrip folded dipole antenna and a change in the size of the dipole on the third type of microstrip folded dipole antenna can reduce the error compared to the first type of microstrip folded dipole antenna. Furthermore, the addition of a resonator on the second type of microstrip folded dipole antenna can increase the gain. While the effect of changing the dipole size on the third type of microstrip folded dipole antenna can reduce the return loss.

Authors:Aslam Chitami Priawan Siregar, Yono Hadi Pramono, Gatut Yudoyono
Submitted On:23-05-2022
Pages:604-612
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 27
Manuscript Title:Gain Enhancement of a Dual Band Antenna Using Energy Squeezing Mechanism of an ENZ Metamaterial
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-5-252384
Abstract:

A Dual band antenna with pattern similarity using energy squeezing mechanism of an ENZ metamaterial is designed and experimental results are presented with simulated data. In order to achieve a high gain and pattern similarity a waveguide based ENZ metamaterial property has been adopted in to planar microstrip form at upper band. The designed dual band antenna is resonating at 4.3 GHz and 9.8 GHz frequencies with desired radiation pattern. A metamaterial unit cell with ENZ characteristics at 9.8 GHz is designed to improve the antenna performance. Permittivity and Permeability of the unit cell is characterized using Nicolson–Ross–Weir method. A dual band antenna resonating at 4.3 GHz and 9.8 GHz is designed with and without ENZ unit cell to compare the radiation characteristics. Using the ENZ material's energy squeezing mechanism, a 12 dB gain improvement is achieved in the upper band without affecting the lower band radiation characteristics. The dual band antenna with ENZ material is fabricated and measured results show good match with the simulated results. The proposed antenna size at 4.3 GHz is 0.58? × 0.58? × 0.02?.

Authors:Srujana Vahini N,Kunooru Bharath, Rama Krishna Dasari, V.M.PandhariPande
Submitted On:29-05-2022
Pages:613-621
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 43
Manuscript Title:Design Considerations for Compact Dual-Band Slotted Patch Antenna with Defected Ground Plane
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-7-252398
Abstract:
The current research work, presents a compact dual-band and wideband slotted rectangular microstrip patch antenna. The system comprises three circular slots on the patch and a defected ground plane to achieve dual-band and wideband operation. The parametric variations applied to the proposed structure resulted in dual operating frequencies at 4.5 GHz and 8.0 GHz. The antenna prototype exhibits a good radiation pattern, directivity, and surface current over the bandwidth of 364 MHz (between 4.3 GHz and 4.7 GHz) and 2.5 GHz (between 6.5 GHz and 9.0 GHz). The proposed structure is fabricated with measured results of -21.87 dB at 4.5 GHz and -31.79 dB at 8.0 GHz for S11, respectively. The simulated and measured results are virtually identical. This indicates that the model is accurate, reliable, and best suited for 5G, satellites, and wireless applications.
Authors:Neeru Kashyap, Geetanjali, Dhawan Singh
Submitted On:02-07-2022
Pages:622-629
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 33
Manuscript Title:Investigations on a 2T2R MIMO Microstrip Patch Antenna for Next Generation Wireless Networks
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-7-262406
Abstract:
Next generation wireless communication networking environment requires antennas that are robust, high gain, small size, light weight, preferably circularly polarized. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antennas provide the optimal solution by mitigating multipath fading effects and providing data links that can reliably operate ensuring good quality of service. MIMO envisions realization of efficient mobile networks with increased link capacity and bandwidth using spatial diversity providing improved network security. This work investigates the feasibility and parametric optimization of a 2T2R MIMO antenna design for efficient data transmission and reception in a fading environment, which is possible to achieve only by excellent inter element as well as radiation isolation as compared to previous works in the same domain. The design work focusses on the transmission coefficient isolation approach to optimize the envelope correlation coefficient (ECC).
Authors:Satya Singh, Milind Thomas Themalil
Submitted On:22-07-2022
Pages:630-638
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 26
Manuscript Title:Compact Microstrip Low-Pass Filter for Wi-Fi Applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-8-262417
Abstract:

A compact low-pass filter is presented using a modified hairpin resonator to provide a wide stopband and sharp roll-off. The filter is designed for a 2.4GHz cutoff frequency, which can be used for Wi-Fi applications. The designed filter has a low insertion loss of 0.3dB and a wide stopband of 5.3GHz. The filter has a sharp roll-off of 63dB/GHz. The size of the filter is 6.1 ×19.9 mm2. The proposed filter is designed, fabricated, and tested. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated results. The proposed filter is compact in size, has low insertion loss, is easy to design, and has a lower fabrication cost.

Authors:S.Maheswari,T.Jayanthy
Submitted On:13-08-2022
Pages:639-643
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 26
Manuscript Title:Metamaterial Implanted Ultra Wideband Antipodal Tapered Slot Antenna with Frequency Notch Characteristics
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-8-272417
Abstract:

Design and realization of square shaped metasurface embedded ultra-wideband (UWB) antipodal tapered slot antenna (ATSA) with frequency notched characteristics is proposed in this paper. The conventional antipodal tapered slot antenna is loaded with square shaped metasurface (MS) to enhance the performance of the antenna. A quarter-wavelength long spur line on the feeding part of the UWB-ATSA contributes to a notch-filtering action which in turn can provide WLAN band rejection from the UWB spectrum of the antenna. The premeditated prototype is fabricated and characterized in connection with impedance and radiation parameter measurements compliant with the results prevailed from full wave simulation.

Authors:Chittajit Sarkar, Susobhan Ray
Submitted On:13-08-2022
Pages:644-650
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 42
Manuscript Title:A New Technique to Estimate Relative Permittivity of Dielectric Materials at High Frequency
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-8-272421
Abstract:
In this article, a simple characterization technique to be used in the teaching field is presented to estimate the relative permittivity of a dielectric material placed in a WR90 shorted rectangular waveguide. This technique is based on the calculation, by transmission line theory, of the relative permittivity as a function of the displacement of the first electric field node in the waveguide measured using the MWT530 device. The results obtained for the materials of Teflon, Plexiglas, wood and Epoxy FR4, at the frequency 10.425 GHz, in the X band are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods for the same materials. Compared to existing methods, this technique is more simple, fast and accurate for materials characterization not demanding any sophisticated measurement equipment nor a high theoretical background. This makes it more suitable for use by students in classroom teaching.
Authors:Lahcen Ait Benali, Abdelwahed Tribak, Jaouad Terhzaz, Asmae Mimouni
Submitted On:18-08-2022
Pages:651-655
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 24
Manuscript Title:Monopole Antenna Design with Snowflake Hexagon Pattern
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-8-272423
Abstract:
In this study, we propose a monopole antenna structure using a snowflake hexagon pattern. We modified the Hilbert curve fractal dipole structure into a monopole structure and implemented the antenna radiator in a hexagonal shape to simplify the structure. To improve the characteristics of the antenna, we performed a parameter sweep of the radiator angles, radiator spacing, and spacing between the antenna and the ground. The wire length of the snowflake hexagon pattern is 47 mm, corresponding to a length of 0.25? of the GPS resonance frequency. The resistance value of the antenna is 0.6 O. Because the Hilbert curve fractal dipole structure was modified to a monopole structure, it was not only smaller than the volume of the basic patch antenna, but also reduced the wire length and reduced the wire resistance using the snowflake hexagonal pattern. FR4 with a relative permittivity of 4.7 was used for the antenna substrate. The antenna size is 10 mm × 10 mm × 0.8 mm, and the wire width is 0.4 mm. The size of the antenna measurement jig is 64 mm × 21 mm × 1 mm. The resonance frequency is 1.58 GHz, and the frequency range is 1.52–1.64 GHz (120 MHz). The measured gain was -0.72 dBi in the XZ-plane and 2.08 dBi in the YZ-plane. According to the results, the snowflake hexagon pattern facilitated the miniaturization of the antenna.
Authors:Sang Won Kang, Tae-Soon Chang
Submitted On:25-08-2022
Pages:656-663
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 30
Manuscript Title:Deep Learning Based Software-Defined Indoor Environment for Space-time Coded Wireless Communication Using Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-8-272425
Abstract:
In the domain of wireless communication, the demand for high-speed data communication is at an all-time high as a result of proliferation of data intensive applications. Users not only demand for reliability in communication, high data-rates, enhanced security and high bandwidth, they also want their communication networks to be ubiquitous, wherein they can access their desired information from any device and at any location. These growing demands have led to continuous re-design of modern-day wireless communication architecture. This paper therefore proposes a technique for enhancing wireless communication through the design of an intelligent and re-programmable wireless communication environment (WCE), using reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) trained by carefully-tuned deep-learning algorithms. This work shows that this technique is a viable solution for combating the effect of fading, interference and obstructions that have hitherto degraded the performance of most wireless communication systems.
Authors:Adedayo Olukayode Ojo, Owolabi Israel Esan, Olusegun O. Omitola
Submitted On:30-08-2022
Pages:664-673
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 18
OPTICAL RELATED PAPERS
Manuscript Title:XNOR Optical Logic Gates in Mach-Zehnder Waveguide of Tin Oxide Nanomaterial
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-8-262413
Abstract:
New parameters for Mach-Zehnder optical waveguide had been modelled using the Finite Difference Beam Propagating Method (FD-BPM). The waveguide contains parameters of high refractive index nanomaterial Tin Oxide, considered Kerr-type nonlinear optics material. The core of the guide part was built in by the refractive index parameter of thin film nanomaterial tin oxide of 2,2735 that had been fabricated in previous research. At the same time, the cladding was established by the thin oxide doped with an index contrast of 0,005. The waveguide generates XNOR optical logic gate due to the material's nonlinearity effect and the waveguide structure's coupling effect. The optical logic gate function was generated using a low-power input signal. The waveguide structure also has a more comprehensive guide part parameter to ease the fabrication and input signal coupling. It indicated that the waveguide could be considered a lowenergy optical device for future telecommunication technology.
Authors:Muhimmatul Khoiro, Yono Hadi Pramono, Rohim Aminullah Firdaus
Submitted On:09-08-2022
Pages:674-680
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 26
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