INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 17, NO. 2, MARCH 2022
A PUBLICATION OF THE
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY (IAMOT)
Reno, NV 89511, U.S.A.
MARCH 2022 VOLUME 17 NUMBER 2 IJMOT ISSN: 1553-0396
Banmali S Rawat

Editor-In-Chief

MESSAGE FROM EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
MICROWAVE RELATED PAPERS
Manuscript Title:Atmospheric Effects and Behaviour of Electromagnetic Signals in the Millimeter Wave 1 Range Wireless Communication
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-10-202275
Abstract:
Today, in 2022 evolution of 5G is at its peak, and few companies have even launched their smartphones based on LTE-A as a primary technology and in non-standalone mode. Millimeter wave communication using electromagnetic signals plays a vital role. This electromagnetic signal, when propagates through the air, may get impacted by various atmospheric constituents like free space loss, rain attenuation loss, gaseous loss, foliage loss, humidity, cloud, fog, and penetration loss. These losses cannot be underestimated during estimation and performance analysis in the high-frequency region of millimeter wave communication. An atmospheric constituent causes a very high degree of attenuation in the millimeter wave range and reduces transmission range when intended for non-line of sight communication. Accurate and precise measurements and analysis of these parameters help suggest new and better models in designing and development of millimeter wave range advanced communication systems. Though no model is a hundred perent correct, it is possible to measure these losses accurately and precisely by effective modeling. The new models are suggested by taking into consideration tropical and temperate regions. We need new models for a specific place in tropical areas to get precision, accuracy, and better performance in the millimeter wave range. This paper remits the effect of atmospheric constituents in the new models developed for a tropical region like Navi Mumbai in India for millimeter wave communication in the range of 30 GHz to 300 GHz.
Authors:Devidas Chikhale, Mahesh Munde, Shankar Deosarkar
Submitted On:21-10-2021
Pages:115-125
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 62
Manuscript Title:Study of Leaky Acoustic Micro-Waves in Piezoelectric Material (Lithium Niobate Cut Y-X) Using Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) Classification
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-10-202278
Abstract:
In this paper, the leaky acoustic micro-waves (LAW) in a piezoelectric substrate (Lithium Niobate LiNbO3 Cut Y-X) were studied. The main method for this research was classification using a probabilistic neural network (PNN).The originality of this method is in the accurate values it provides. In our case, this technique was helpful in identifying undetectable waves, which are difficult to identify by classical methods. Moreover, all the values of the real part and the imaginary part of the coefficient attenuation with the acoustic velocity were classified in order to build a model from which we could easily note the Leaky waves. Accurate values of the coefficient attenuation and acoustic velocity for Leaky waves were obtained. Hence, in this study, the focus was on the interesting modeling and realization of acoustic microwave devices (radiating structures) based on the propagation of acoustic microwaves.
Authors:Amel Mechnane , Hichem Hafdaoui , Djamel Benatia
Submitted On:28-10-2021
Pages:126-132
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 192
Manuscript Title:Dual Band Compact Patch Antenna Array With Defected Ground Structure for Wideband Sector Beam Synthesis
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-11-202281
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel design approach for series-fed microstrip patch antenna arrays. The design is based on the principle of gain modification of a patch antenna array with an amplitude distribution, to generate a desired beam pattern. The proposed antenna uses the feature that the patch width can be varied to obtain amplitude tapering. The widths are calculated using Fourier’s method of array synthesis for shaped beam pattern generation. A small rectangular slot is removed from the radiating patch for dual band operation. The ground plane is made defected with ‘U’ slots, to increase the bandwidth. The structure is simulated in HFSS and fabricated on FR-4 Epoxy material to test the validation practically. Compared to the existing designs, the proposed structure does not necessitate the use of any complicated power dividers or phase shifting circuits. It exhibits two resonant frequencies, at 3.6 GHz and 6.8 GHz. At 3.6 GHz, the array produces a sector pattern gain of magnitude 14.7 dB, with low level side lobes at -21 dB. At 6.8 GHz, it exhibits a sector pattern of gain of 14.5 dB, with a low side lobe level of -19 dB. The impedance bandwidths of the structure are 11.1% (2.6 to 4.3 GHz) and 10.8% (6.3 to 7.8 GHz), respectively. The simulated results and prototype measured values have a great similarity.
Authors:A. M. V. N. Maruti, B. S. Naga Kishore
Submitted On:01-11-2021
Pages:133-141
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 29
Manuscript Title:Enhancing the Absorber Frequency Bandwidth in GHz Regime by Applying Column Network Defects
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-11-202282
Abstract:
This paper investigates by simulation and experiments a full-sized electromagnetic wave absorber structure, with the size of 100 unit-cells in the GHz frequency region. The unit cell consists of closed and open square metal bar structures arranged periodically on a dielectric base as a two-dimensional lattice, the bottom layer is a full copper layer. Different from other studies, this study applies the lattice defect directly to the full structure rather than adjusting the unit cell structure, therefore it is possible to control and expand the working frequency range with a structure in its actual size. Column network defects are created by removing the columns of unit cells at the appropriate position in the structure, the simulations are performed by FIT (Finite Integration Technique). Column defects have been proven to be able to enhance the absorption intensity and widen the working frequency band up to 1.5 GHz. Three types of column defects are applied and optimized to obtain the best absorption range in the X band (8 - 12 GHz). The mechanism of absorption due to electromagnetic resonance and energy absorption is discussed.
Authors:Pham Van Dien, Pham Van Hai, Vu Minh Tu Bui Xuan Khuyen, Vu Dinh Lam, Tran Manh Cuong1
Submitted On:02-11-2021
Pages:142-148
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 60
Manuscript Title:Circularly Polarized Flexible Dual-Band Microstrip Antenna Using Kapton Material
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-11-202283
Abstract:
A Flexible Kapton material-based dualband Microstrip patch is proposed with a reduced Specific absorption rate (SAR) for animal wearable application. It exhibits resonating operations at GPS 1.56 GHz-1.585GHz band as well GSM/DCS-1800 1.710 GHz-1.880 GHz. A flexible Kapton substrate is utilized with tunable dual bands of GPS and GSM by considering circular polarization operation and achieved with diagonal feed configuration. Proposed antenna excited with coaxial feed line to fix antenna over any part of the animal body. The proposed antenna has been modeled with overall dimensions of 0.418?0 x 0.366 ?0 and analyzed using HFSS-finite element method-based Electromagnetic (EM) simulation software. The flexibility of the proposed antenna, SAR for animal body wearable applications, is investigated with flexible Kapton substrate material by considering permittivity (Er) 3.4 loss tangent (d) 0.002 and thickness 0.8 mm. The circular polarization is achieved with diagonal feed in the design structure. The simulated design is next fabricated and tested for measurable outcomes to provide practical validation. The proposed antenna is excellent in flexibility, thermal endurance and efficient with high moisture absorption properties than the conventional antennas which are available in the market. This work effect of Electromagnetic (EM) radiation on living beings has been examined and investigated through a compact flexible microstrip antenna, which proposes minimal SAR values, extended radiation performance and efficiency around 80% which is excellent in wearable applications as compared to conventional antennas.
Authors:Trupti N. Pawase, Akshay Malhotra, Anurag Mahajan
Submitted On:04-11-2021
Pages:149-160
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 49
Manuscript Title:Design of Aperture Coupled Log Periodic Dielectric Resonator Antenna for X Band Applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-11-212286
Abstract:
A log periodic wideband dielectric resonator’s antenna’s array design are considered for X band functions. The Log Periodic Dielectric Resonator Antenna (LPDRA) array is energized through sequence fed micro strip line with the resonators are aperture joined in feed line to decreases the additional wounded in an array. The proposed array consists of seven different sized rectangular resonator elements arranged in log periodic fashion. DR’s are fabricated of alumina_92pct. The dielectric resonators are mounted on one side of the substrate and the ground plane is printed on the same side. The substrate is of FR-4 material having relative dielectric constant (e) of 4.4. It has dimensions of length of the substrate 80mm, width of the substrate 90 mm and height of the substrate 1.6mm. HFSS tool is used to resolve the return loss, VSWR and Gain factor by simulating LPDRA elements. The proposed wide band log periodic deictic resonator antenna results; a wide bandwidth of 45.19% enveloping the frequency value from 8.4089GHz to 12.550GHz with a maximum Gain of 6.076dB. These characteristics create this LPDRA array smart for X-band communications of satellite as well as RADAR systems
Authors:B V Ramana, P. Mallikarjuna Rao, M. Satyanarayana
Submitted On:18-11-2021
Pages:161-168
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 34
Manuscript Title:Semi-Circular Stubs UWB Monopole Antenna with Tunable Dual Band-Notch Characteristics
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-11-212288
Abstract:
This paper proposes a tunable dual band-notched ultrawideband monopole antenna for ultrawideband applications. The proposed antenna consists of a circular ring monopole antenna as a main radiator with two unequally sized semi-circular stubs added near the inner edge of the circular ring to achieve dual band-notching. The band-notching tuning is achieved by connecting the larger stub to the main radiator via a single varactor diode. The proposed antenna exhibits a wide impedance bandwidth from 2.8 to 21.9 GHz (154.6%), which is much wider than that of other published antennas. The center frequencies of the dual band-notched are simultaneously tuned using only one active element from 3.5 GHz to 3.8 GHz and from 6.7 GHz to 7.2 GHz, which can reject the WiMAX and the lower X-band applications. The measured results show good agreement with the simulation results.
Authors:Mohammed E. Yassin, Hesham A. Mohamed, Esmat A.F. Abdallah, Hadia S. El-Hennawy
Submitted On:24-11-2021
Pages:169-177
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 27
Manuscript Title:Microstrip Antenna Array Design with Thin Substrate for Gain Enhancement
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-12-212294
Abstract:
The variation geometry of either the patch or substrate or both can help to design the antenna with specific resonant frequency. In this work, a 1X4 array is designed. The novelty of this proposed work is use of thin FR-4substrate of 0.604mm. Four circular metallic patches are placed with 0.62??apart. Also, the metallic patches are considered with small radius of 11.74mm producing wider bandwidth. Sectoral slots are formed in the circular patch for relative gain enhancement and maintaining the resonant frequency. With this novelty, further the defective ground plane is considered for far-field and near-field effects along with reduction of mutual coupling effect. This satisfies the desired multiband operation along with the gain. The proposed prototype utilized for weather forecasting and broadcasting application that is monitored at the meteorology department. It provides the multiple bands at 7.5GHz, 11.7GHZ &16GHz respectively. Simultaneously, it satisfies the data transmission and reception in the range of 7 to 8 GHz, 11to 12 GHz and 15.5 to 16.5 GHz works for broadcasting. The proposed structure is exhibiting a good amount of bandwidth as well as gain at this application. The gain and bandwidth of this antenna is found excellent that satisfies the simulated result in case of fabricated one.
Authors:Sarmistha Satrusallya, Mihir Narayan Mohanty
Submitted On:02-12-2021
Pages:178-187
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 36
Manuscript Title:Circularly Polarized Tri-Band Ring Dielectric Resonator Antenna for WiMAX/INSAT/WLAN Applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-12-212301
Abstract:
This paper proposes a circularly polarized slot coupled ring dielectric resonator antenna for WiMAX/INSA T/WLAN applications. It consists of a ring dielectric resonator of the outer diameter 36.5 mm, inner diameter 6.5 mm and height of 22.5 mm placed over two orthogonal slots (vertical and horizontal) etched on the ground plane of size 60 mm x 60 mm from FR4 substrate of thickness 1.6 mm. The dielectric constant of dielectric material is of 9.2 and loss tangent is 0.008. Microstrip feeding with slot coupling is used to excite the ring dielectric resonator. Vertical rectangular slot creates circularly polarized wave in higher frequency band. Horizontal rectangular slot creates linear polarization in lower frequency band. Combined effect of horizontal and vertical slots generates HE116, HE216 and TE016 modes inside the ring DRA. These different modes are ensured by simulation of vector electric field distribution using HFSS. Reflection coefficient parameters and axial ratios are investigated at different outer diameter, inner diameter and heights of ring dielectric resonant material. Experimental results confirm the simulated results over three frequency ranges of 3.56-3.89 GHz, 4.42-4.62 GHz and 5.61-5.69 GHz. Circularly polarized waves are also supported in three frequency ranges of 3.34-3.41 GHz, 3.87-3.93 GHz and 5.87-5.92 GHz respectively. The maximum gain in the operational band is 6.5 dBi. The advantage of proposed architecture is compact and it operates in three frequency bands in both linear and circular polarizations.
Authors:A. Sudhakar, M. Satyanarayana, M. Sunil Prakash
Submitted On:15-12-2021
Pages:188-195
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 46
Manuscript Title:Diffraction by a Right-Angled Metallic Wedge with Coating: the UAPO Solution for Normal Incidence
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2022-1-212305
Abstract:
The plane wave diffraction problem involving a 90° coated metallic wedge is addressed in the high-frequency framework when the incidence direction is orthogonal to the edge. The uniform asymptotic physical optics approach is applied to solve the problem in the context of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction. The corresponding solutions for both polarizations of the incident electric field are approximate, easy to use, and supplies reliable results as validated by comparisons with a recognized commercial software. The novelty of the paper relies on the use of the proposed approach to study the interaction of plane waves with double negative metamaterials covering a 90° metallic wedge. The approach is also applied to standard double positive layers for completeness.
Authors:Giovanni Riccio, Gianluca Gennarelli, Flaminio Ferrara, Claudio Gennarelli, Rocco Guerriero
Submitted On:04-01-2022
Pages:196-202
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 19
NO OPTICAL RELATED PAPERS PUBLISHED IN THIS ISSUE
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