INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 16, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2021
A PUBLICATION OF THE
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY (IAMOT)
Reno, NV 89511, U.S.A.
NOVEMBER 2021 VOLUME 16 NUMBER 6 IJMOT ISSN: 1553-0396
Banmali S Rawat

Editor-In-Chief

MESSAGE FROM EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
MICROWAVE RELATED PAPERS
Manuscript Title:Design and Analysis of Embedded Dual Band Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-4-142119
Abstract:This paper proposes the design and analysis of split microstrip-fed embedded dual-band rectangular dielectric resonator antenna for near-field communication. In this design, the impedance bandwidth increases by merging multi-resonant frequencies. The broadband response is accomplished by altering the effective loading. Each resonator can be tuned independently to give a wideband and multiband response. The finite ground plane affects the radiation resistance and the input impedance due to the mutual coupling between the antenna and its image. The ground plane is trimmed to optimize beam shape, impedance matching in the frequency from 3.9 to 5.1 GHz and 8.8 to 10.3 GHz. The antenna shows a similar broadside radiation pattern in the upper and lower hemisphere.
Authors:Sovan Mohanty, Baibaswata Mohapatra
Submitted On:27-04-2021
Pages:536-544
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 108
Manuscript Title:Metamaterial loaded Miniaturized Antenna for Microwave X and Lower Ku Band Applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-6-142153
Abstract:
In the cutting-edge technology of radar systems, for high-resolution image processing applications in target location and intolerance, X band (10.15-10.7GHz) frequencies are usually used as shorter wavelengths in this band. This paper proposed a Rectangular Strip and Ring Resonator (RSRR) microstrip patch antenna for multiband applications. The design used FR-4 Epoxy as the substrate element, and the dimensions are 20x20x1.6mm3. The designed Antenna operated over a wide range of frequencies from 7.61GHz to 14.32GHz, and hence, it covers the entire X band range. Furthermore, by adding the metamaterial-based ring resonator to the rectangular strip antenna, the bandwidth increased to 61.2% and achieved the maximum Gain of 5.5dB at the frequency of 13.37GHz. We got another frequency band from the fabrication results from 2.64-3.35GHz, which covers the S-band also. The novelty in the antenna design was combining rectangular strips and ring resonators to patch. Due to this, we got a wideband region that covers the X and Lower Ku bands. To get good impedance matching, we varied the length of the Antenna's ground plane in optimetrics technique using HFSS 2021R1.with this, and we achieved a significant Return loss up to -40dB.
Authors:Jyothsna Undrakonda, Ch. Manohar Kumar, Ratna Kumari Upadhyayula
Submitted On:29-06-2021
Pages:545-553
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 67
Manuscript Title:Dual-Band Slotted Rectangular Monopole Antenna for Breast Hyperthermia
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-7-142155
Abstract:
Microwave hyperthermia is an effective adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Tumor of 1-2 cm size is generally treated by hyperthermia. Local hyperthermia enhances the effects of anticancer drugs when used with chemotherapy and or radiotherapy. In breast hyperthermia, uniform heating of tumor also damages skin and healthy tissues of the breast. The available applicators for microwave hyperthermia are costly and bulky. This article presents a simple, cost-effective, and compact dual-band slotted rectangular monopole antenna (SRMA). The proposed SRMA design is suitable for breast hyperthermia treatment (HT). It offers dual frequencies (f1 = 2.45 GHz and f2 =5.5 GHz) for HT. The dual-band frequencies are widely suitable for deep-seated and superficial breast tumors treatment. CST-MW tool is used for antenna and tri-layer breast model design. Electromagnetic (EM) and thermal solvers are used for coupled simulation. The performance of the SRMA is evaluated for a hyperthermia treatment duration of 40 min. Evaluated SAR is within the specified limit of IEEE C95.1 standard. The thermal simulation results states that temperature distribution inside the tissue is in safe limits. The proposed applicator is suitable for breast hyperthermia. It helps to reduce hotspots. Standard FR4 substrate is used for fabricating this compact antenna. It fulfils the requirements for oncological application in breast hyperthermia, as per the IEEE C95.1 standard.
Authors:Jaswantsing Rajput, Anil Nandgaonkar, Sanjay Nalbalwar, Abhay Wagh, Nagraj Huilgol
Submitted On:04-07-2021
Pages:554-567
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 32
Manuscript Title:Null Steering Implementation by Controlling Side-Elements Positions
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-7-142156
Abstract:
In this paper, a simple and low-cost null steering method for linear and planar arrays is presented and experimentally verified. It consists of controlling the positions of one or more edge elements on each side of the array. Unlike the existing electronic null steering methods, where the desired nulls were placed by either modifying the amplitudes/phasesof the excitation weights of the array elements or by thinning the array elements, the proposed method uses uniform (i.e., fixed) amplitude excitations and none of the elements are removed (switched off). Thus, it is neither affected by the quantization errors nor gain reduction. Moreover, the proposed null steering method has been applied to both linear and rectangular planar arrays. An array of eight rectangular patcheswith two optimized side elements is fabricated and its radiation characteristics were measured. Experimental results were found to be in agood agreement with the theoretical onesand show realistic and satisfactory array patterns with accurate null directions ata depth lower than -35 dB with respect to that of the uniformly spaced arrays.
Authors:Karam Mudhafar Younus, Jafar Ramadhan Mohammed
Submitted On:06-07-2021
Pages:568-575
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 30
Manuscript Title:Design and Implementation of a Miniaturized Hybrid Minkowiski Carpet Iteration-2 Fractal antenna for GPS, WLAN and C-band Applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-7-152156
Abstract:
This paper gives an attention on a Hybrid fractal antenna which facilitates both Sierpinki Carpet, Minkowski fractal geometries. These two geometries are integrated and printed together on the FR4 epoxy substrate for serving multiband wireless communications with increased percentage of Miniaturization. The recommended size of the antenna is 48.24 x 38.73 x 0.8 mm3 with a substrate dielectric constant value 4.4 and is developed up to iteration-2. All the three (iteration-0,1,2) antenna structures are fed witha 50O micro strip feed line and simulated using ANSYS High Frequency Structure Simulator software for a frequency window of 1 GHz to 10GHz . The simulation results are compared for all the three antenna iterations in terms of various radiation parameters like reflection coefficient, VSWR, number of resonant frequencies, gain and Bandwidth. As the iteration-2 antenna shows best radiation standards with highest possible Miniaturization of 59.87%, it is recommended as a proposed antenna. The standard value of % Miniaturization for 2nd iteration traditional carpet model is 20.98%. For the proposed hybrid model, the size reduction extended to 59.87% which is more than twice that of the conventional model. Moreover the proposed model presented with a simple and compact design as compared to existing models. The proposed HybridMinkowski Carpet Iteration-2 Fractal antenna model is fabricated and tested for verifying Return loss and VSWR plots using VNA. The measured results shows 7 frequency bands (1.45-1.589 GHz), (4.24-4.5 GHz), (5.2-5.94 GHz), (7.0-7.27 GHz), (7.6- 8.0GHz), (8.0-8.435GHz) and (8.6-8.972GHz) suitable for GPS, WLAN and C-band applications with compact size. The numerical results of the simulation and measurement are closely matching with each other.
Authors:Gudla Ramalakshmi, P. Mallikarjuna Rao
Submitted On:07-07-2021
Pages:576-587
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 29
Manuscript Title:Antenna with Low Impedance Variations for EBD Stage and a Method to Quantify Stability of Antenna Impedance
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-7-152157
Abstract:
Electrical Balance Duplexers (EBDs) in modern communication systems provide Transmit (TX)-Receive (RX) isolation to implement a form of self-interference (SI) cancellation to facilitates simultaneous transmission and reception from single antenna. EBD works by coupling transmitter, receiver, antenna, and balancing impedance using a hybrid junction where the balancing impedance needs to be equal to the antenna impedance to achieve a high isolation. Variations in antenna impedance with respect to frequency significantly reduces the isolation bandwidth and is dominant factor in limiting the isolation. A method based on Sample Standard Deviation is firstly introduced to quantify impedance stability in the frequency domain. Then a frequency independent antenna with a core structure of equiangular Archimedean spiral is designed to achieve impedance stability in frequency domain. The antenna impedance at an ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency range of 1.5GHz to 4GHz is more smoothened in some design steps using electromagnetic absorbers, capacitive impedance tuning and modification techniques whilst this electrically small antenna also has circular polarization, electromagnetic compatibility, and suitable radiation efficiency. In comparison with the literature, using this antenna in the EBD stage along with a simpler balancing impedance has resulted to about six times wider 20 dB EBD isolation bandwidth.
Authors:Soheyl Soodmand, Mark A. Beach, Kevin A. Morris
Submitted On:08-07-2021
Pages:588-597
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 31
Manuscript Title:Flexible Multi-Band Metamaterial Absorber Using Neoprene Rubber
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-7-152160
Abstract:
A flexible multi-band metamaterial absorber for S and C band applications is proposed in this study. For flexibility and durability, the metamaterial structure is made of nylon reinforced neoprene rubber. The suggested absorber is compact and insensitive to polarization. The absorber exhibits more than 90% absorption at 2.87, 3.93, 5.58, 6.12 and 6.89 GHz. The RCS analysis of the absorber is presented in this study to validate the absorber's unique multi-band behavior. This paper also includes a comprehensive study on the importance of the effect of nylon reinforcing in neoprene rubber. The structure is fabricated using photolithography and tested using the free space measurement method. The proposed absorber can be used for stealth applications in aircrafts to reduce their visibility from airport surveillance radar used in ATC which falls in the range of 1.55 to 5.2GHz.
Authors:Rahul Manohar O, Anju Praddep, P Mohanan
Submitted On:10-07-2021
Pages:598-607
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 25
Manuscript Title:A Circular Monopole Filtenna with Inverted L-shaped Stub for 5G Applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-8-172245
Abstract:
A filtering antenna for 5G applications is presented, where a circular monopole antenna is employed, and the resonant element is an inverted L-shaped stub attached to the microstrip feed line to eliminate the necessity of additional size for filter inclusion. A comprehensive parametric analysis was performed using CST Microwave Studio Suite to assess the filtenna properties and optimize its parameters. The filtenna is aimed for the 5G 3.4-3.8 GHz, and the bandwidth has been reduced from 4515 MHz for the monopole, to 1539 MHz for the single-stub filtenna, and then to 617 MHz for the double-stub filtenna with a good reflection coefficient of -41.18 dB and -25.45 dB respectively at the center frequency. The L-shaped stub improves the edge of the frequency response while it has no effect on the radiation pattern at the operating frequency. The use of two stubs offered independent improvement of the two edges of the frequency response, by adjusting the length of each stub. In comparison to the other filtenna designs, the proposed filtenna is very compact, measuring only 35 x 44 mm2, or 0.42 ?o x 0.53 ?o at the center frequency, and has a gain of 3.5 and 3.15 dBi for the single and double-stub filtenna.
Authors:Thabet H. Al-Arajee, Khalil H. Sayidmarie
Submitted On:10-08-2021
Pages:608-617
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 29
OPTICAL RELATED PAPERS
Manuscript Title:Self-Phase Modulation Mitigation in Coherent Optical Communication Systems
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-5-142132
Abstract:
High capacity and long-distance transmission have already made optical communication systems of great importance in present day communication networks. At high power levels, these systems suffer from nonlinear effects. This study is an attempt to mitigate self-phase modulation (SPM) in a coherent optical system using digital back propagation (DBP) algorithm, and the effect of fiber length, transmitter power and effective area on SPM. Optical communication system software is used here to simulate optical systems. Analysis of the system performance under investigation is based on Bit Error Rate (BER), Q Factor, at 200 km transmission distance and 20 dBm transmitter power. The value of the Q factor improved from 4.85 when mitigating only linear effects to 6.36 after mitigating the self-phase modulation and the bit error rate decreased from the value 15×10-6 to the value equal to 10-8 after applying the DBP algorithm.
Authors:Hamid Ali Abed Alasadi, Lama Mohamad, Mohammad Nassr
Submitted On:24-05-2021
Pages:618-625
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 194
Manuscript Title:Efficacy of Double/Single Notched ring resonator on the basis of plasmonic nanoparticle
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-6-142144
Abstract:
In this paper we verify the efficiency of a double notched over single notched micro-ring resonator with a layer of silicon dioxide to analyze the sensitivity of different nanoparticles. A comparative study has been conducted for achieving a strong optical coupling between the nanoparticles and the ring. We yield a better response by placing a nanoparticle in the notch than simply introducing it at the outside surface of the ring. The study has been further carried for different metallic nanoparticles present in the notch. The transmission spectrum obtained at the through port of the designed resonator is scrutinized in presence of metallic nanoparticles like Silver (Ag), Gold (Au), Palladium (Pd), Rhodium (Rh), Platinum (Pt), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Indium (In) and inorganic nanoparticles like Titanium oxide (TiO2). After a comprehensive analysis, it is found that the micro ring resonator with a double notch portrays larger splitting of resonance mode and the significant variation in the response has been observed with the variation of the nanoparticle in the notch. The studied structure is compact, cost effective and efficient and thus can be utilized for the detection of different metallic and non-metallic nanoparticle. And in double notch microring resonator the effective refractive index of the mode increases hence it becomes highly responsive to the surrounding medium, therefore we can conclude that this design is suitable candidate for bio-sensing application as well.
Authors:Shreya Sahai, Prashant Chauhan, Anshu Varshney
Submitted On:16-06-2021
Pages:626-631
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 21
Manuscript Title:Three Dimensional Analysis of Nano Magnetooptic Ferrite Thin Films for a Variable MUX/DEMUX Applications in Optical Communication
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2021-8-182246
Abstract:
This paper investigates the total diffraction angles achieved with magneto-optic ferrite thin films in three dimensions. This paper also looks at the optical beam spreading to see if any channels overlap with one another. This paper shows that when the incident vector is in the XY plane and the applied magnetic fields are in different XZ or XY planes, the resulting cross product yields vectors in all XYZ directions. Further, a numerical analysis of the optical beam diffraction angle is shown. The diffraction angle (beam spreading) was in the order of 10-9 degrees. Thus, using laws of triangles with a channel spacing of 0.01 nanometers (nm), one would start to see the channels overlap approximately 1 meter after the signals traverse the thin film material. Considering Multiplexer (MUX)/Demultiplexer (DEMUX) devices are in micro meter dimensions, this shows there will be no issues with channel overlapping. 
Authors:David Coisson, Banmali Rawat
Submitted On:17-08-2021
Pages:632-640
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 42
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