INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 15, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2020
A PUBLICATION OF THE
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY (IAMOT)
Reno, NV 89511, U.S.A.
NOVEMBER 2020 VOLUME 15 NUMBER 6 IJMOT ISSN: 1553-0396
Banmali S Rawat

Editor-In-Chief

MESSAGE FROM EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
MICROWAVE RELATED PAPERS
Manuscript Title:Design of Cross-Coupled Band-Pass Filter Based on Square Open Loop Resonators
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2019-11-11864
Abstract:One of the most pertinent challenges of the next generation of electronic design devices consist of finding the new process to optimize electronic elements. The optimization process aims to enhance the efficiency, performances, and the robustness of the component. This paper proposes new design of band pass filter, the novelty lays in introduction of microwave cross coupled micro-strip square open loop resonators. The proposed filter uses N+2 matrix synthesis, which is based on a recursive approach. The filer operates at the frequency 2.5 GHz and its reflection coefficient is 35 dB at 2.5 GHz. The results from the simulation supports the efficiency of the proposed design. A prototype of the proposed band pass filter with microwave cross coupled micro-strip square open loop resonators was measured and the results are in good agreement with the simulation.
Authors:Mohamed Taha El Khorassani, Hamza Benchakroun, Imane Badaout, Abdelkrim Farkhsi, Naima Amar Touhami
Submitted On:22-11-2019
Pages:511-516
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 92
Manuscript Title:Defected Ground Structure (DGS) Incorporated RFID Reader Antenna Array for Indoor Positioning Systems at 2.45 GHz
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-6-21987
Abstract:In this paper, a 14 microstrip array antenna for 2.45 GHz Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) reader application is proposed. The proposed antenna array configuration consists of slotted radiating patch elements and defected ground plane structure. The patch elements are excited through the corporate feed network. The proposed array configuration is designed using an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4 and a thickness of 1.6 mm. The simulation results are verified through the measurement process to confirm the validity of the design concept which shows good agreement with the simulated results. The measured data shows that the proposed array resonates at 2.45 GHz with 95MHz bandwidth and offers a peak gain of about 7.75 dBi. The proposed array finds suitable applications in indoor positioning systems as RFID reader antenna.
Authors:I. Tabakh, Sudipta Das, S. Mohapatra, D. Barad, M. Jorio , N. El Amrani El Idrissi
Submitted On:21-06-2020
Pages:517-524
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 55
Manuscript Title:A Decoupling Technique for UWB-MIMO Antenna Based on a Metamaterial
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-7-21997
Abstract:In this paper, the metamaterial (MTM) decoupling structure is employed to enhance the mutual coupling between antenna elements of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna. The proposed antenna has a fractional bandwidth 133.1% in frequency band 2.45GHz to 12.2GHz which covers the ultra-wideband (UWB) communications. By introducing the MTM structures between elements, the maximum achievable isolation is -10dB in frequency band 3.0-3.57GHz, -15dB in 3.57-12.3GHz, and 8.5dB in 2.45-3.0 GHz band. The radiation pattern of the MIMO antenna was analyzed using two different approaches: Combined Results Technique (CRT), and Far-Field Calculation of Antenna Arrays (FFCAA) integrated into Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio (CST MWS). The gain and efficiency produced by both (CRT), and (FFCAA) are 5.575dB, 85.7% and 5.560 dB, 76.89% respectively. The proposed MIMO antenna achieved the Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC<0.05 with a corresponding diversity gain (DG>9.5 dB). The overall optimized dimensions of the designed antenna are 0.27?×0.166?×0.0166? mm2 for ?=96.71 mm, free-space wavelength. The inter-element separation was set to 0.135?. The key attribute of the present method was observed in achieving highly miniaturized antenna dimensions with better electrical performance in comparison to the antenna structures presented in the literature. All achieved features for the present antenna make it suitable for use in small UWB wireless devices with better performances. The proposed antenna has been simulated using CST MWS and validated with the existing experimental data in the literature.
Authors:Felix Urimubenshi, Dominic B. O. Konditi, Edward N. Ndung’u
Submitted On:21-07-2020
Pages:525-536
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 53
Manuscript Title:T-Junction Diplexer for RF Front End of a Cellular Base-station
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-7-31995
Abstract:A sixth order high isolation diplexer with Chebyshev channel filter characteristics is presented. The diplexer is proposed for isolating the transmit (Tx) and the receive (Rx) frequencies within the front end of a cellular base-station. A novel formulation for achieving the T-junction used in distributing energy between the Tx and Rx channels is proposed. A test diplexer with a Tx frequency and a Rx frequency of 2.6 GHz and 3.0 GHz, respectively, have been designed, simulated, and presented. The design implementation is based on Rogers RT/Duroid 6010LM substrate with a 10.7 dielectric constant and 1.27 mm thickness. The circuit model and microstrip layout results of the diplexer show good agreement with a high isolation of better than 50 dB between the Tx and the Rx channels. The in-band minimum insertion loss is better than 1.1 dB, with a greater than 20 dB in-band return loss across both the Tx and the Rx bands.
Authors:Augustine O. Nwajana, Patrick U. Okafor, Stella N. Arinze
Submitted On:27-07-2020
Pages:537-543
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 32
Manuscript Title:Design of Slots Cut Rectangular Microstrip Antenna Backed By Modified Ground Plane For Wider Bandwidth
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-7-41995
Abstract:Design of rectangular microstrip antenna loaded with rectangular slots on the patch and the ground plane is reported which yields impedance bandwidth of 2.47 GHz (39.9%). In this paper, a detailed study to provide an insight into the functioning of this slot cut antenna in terms of the rectangular patch resonant modes is presented first. The study reveals that the wider bandwidth is the result of optimum spacing in between TM20, TM12 and TM22 resonant modes of the rectangular patch. Due to the presence of these modified higher order modes, the antenna exhibit higher cross polar radiation pattern which is conical at some frequencies over the bandwidth. Further similar design using proximity feeding is presented in 1.7 GHz frequency band. Proximity fed slot cut antenna yields more than 50% of impedance bandwidth with average gain of above 4 dBi. With these antenna characteristics, proposed configuration can be used in personal communication applications where the higher cross polar radiation from the antenna will be of an advantage.
Authors:Amit A Deshmukh, Pritish Kamble, Poonam Kadam
Submitted On:28-07-2020
Pages:544-552
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 66
Manuscript Title:Deep Learning For Optimized Hybrid Precoding In Mobile Communication
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-7-51997
Abstract:The study of creating a deep learning model for wireless communication is considered an essential topic. In the mm-Wave MIMO communication, it is of interest to find optimized hybrid precoders based on uplink pilot channels. Typically, channel matrices are used as inputs to a deep learning model at the transmitter, but this is not feasible when transferring a complete channel matrix from the receiver to the transmitter. A practical solution for mobile systems using the mm-Wave MIMO communication that use pilot channels as the inputs of the deep learning at the transmitter. The pilot channels play a primary role in finding these optimized hybrid precoders. Several studies have focused on using the pilot channels as the inputs and the outputs as corresponding speeds for the mm-Wave MIMO communication in the mobile system. However, according to the input pilot channel, the accuracy is not much due to the varying signal-to-noise ratio when estimating the data speed. This paper offers another solution: using numbered beams, where the numbers of beams are considered the outputs of the deep learning model with the pilot channels' inputs. This solution helps the transmitter estimate the speed more accurately than previous studies. An error of estimating speed will decrease compared to the previous method through simulation.
Authors:Hoai Trung Tran
Submitted On:29-07-2020
Pages:553-561
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 18
Manuscript Title:Design and implementation of a wideband phased array antenna integrated with 2-bits phase shifter
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-8-61996
Abstract:This paper presents a simple structure of a two layers wideband phased array antenna. The proposed system is composed by two elementary bow-tie antenna arrays, 2-bits monolithic wideband Phase Shifter (PS) and a wideband power divider. The Phase Shifter is designed using a wideband directional coupler and switched reflection delay line topology with two cells of 180° and 90°. Two Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) and Single Pole Single Throw (SPST) switch devices are used to commit between the different states. Simulation results of the proposed wideband Phase Shifter show a return loss less than -10 dB, an insertion loss around -4 dB and four states (0°, 90°, 180°, -90°). The phased array antenna structure integrated with all components is printed on FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant equal to 4.34, a conductor loss of 0.002 and a thickness of 1.6mm. Simulation radiation pattern shows a scan angle of 30° with an error of 3°. The realized gain is equal to 2 dB and the return loss are less than -10 dB over 2-4 GHz. Indeed, the proposed new structure is implemented in multi layers and characterized by a reduced size and wideband results.
Authors:M. Mabrouki, A.Gharsallah
Submitted On:07-08-2020
Pages:562-572
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 21
Manuscript Title:Tri Notch Band Trident Shaped UWB Microstrip Antenna
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-8-61998
Abstract:An ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna of size 25 mm x 8 mm x 1.6 mm from FR4 substrate with tri band rejection properties is suggested in this paper. The suggested antenna consists of a trident shaped patch with tapered microstrip line on one side to have three notched bands and partial ground on the other side of the substrate to increase the bandwidth. The three notched bands are 5.06-6.60 GHz, 7.84-8.52 GHz and 10.08-11.95 GHz to avoid interferences from WLAN, ITU and a part of X band frequencies with UWB band respectively. This antenna has an operating frequency from 4.22 to 14.1 GHz with |S11| = -10. The proposed structure is small in size compared to the antennas reported in the literature. In this paper, the variations of frequency notched characteristics are discussed by varying the length of side and middle arms of trident shaped patch. Also we can see the effect of varying length of ground plane on rejection band properties. The design parameters and the performance of the suggested antenna are examined by using HFSS. Experimental and simulated results are in good agreement and the maximum gain of the antenna is found to be 5.57 dB.
Authors:A. Sudhakar, M.V. Nageswara Rao
Submitted On:14-08-2020
Pages:573-580
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 57
Manuscript Title:Evaluation of Bistatic and Monostatic RCS for simple and complex targets in X-band
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-8-61999
Abstract:The most important Radar applications are based on cross section of Radar (RCS) factor which indicates the spatial waveform of the returned signal as a signature that comes from the target (Echo). It can be measured for such physical objects such as tanks, aircrafts, and vessels. The measurements of this signature are expensive and sophisticated processes because of using instruments of microwave. Due to the ability of microwave instruments to illuminate this object with energy adequately, Radar recognizes a reflect signal from this target. This implies that Radar can be considered a noise floor. This paper is used Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software in order to simulate RCS for various simple and complex targets at single typical frequency. Two types of target shapes that are made of iron material: simple and complex, are modeled and simulated for analyzing RCS with various angles in two different systems which include a monostatic, a bistatic under assumption of selecting the same frequency for both systems which is 9.4 GHz (Xband frequency). It is proven that truncated cone target is more easily detected because it has a large magnitude of main lobe means a target imagination is more visible. The RCS calculations of various simple and complex targets are better and more different than previous simple targets calculations due to shape, size, and types of targets and also frequencies and materials that are made of. Furthermore, simulation results demonstrate these measurements and comparisons in more detail.
Authors:Huda I. hamd, Haraa R. Hatem, Wurod Qasim Mohamed
Submitted On:15-08-2020
Pages:581-589
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 27
Manuscript Title:An Approach to High Selectivity Substrate Integrated Waveguide Band Pass Filter for mm-Wave Applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-8-72000
Abstract:In this research work, a Chebyshev 5th order Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) band pass filter that operates at a center frequency of 30 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 9% has been designed and analyzed. Resonators were designed to operate at the required center frequency, and the internal and external coupling coefficients have been calculated theoretically. Simulation results have been used to calculate the coupling coefficients during the implementation of the SIW filter. The designed filter demonstrates high selectivity with quasi elliptic characteristics. The insertion loss of -0.9 dB and return loss of up to -28 dB has been realized. To further reduce the size, half mode operation was implemented which gave an insertion and return loss of -3dB and -18 dB respectively.
Authors:Cleophas D.K Mutepfe, Viranjay M. Srivastava
Submitted On:17-08-2020
Pages:590-596
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 39
Manuscript Title:Modified Variations of E-shape Microstrip Antennas for Wideband Response
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-9-72010
Abstract:With the advancement in the mobile communication systems, microstrip antenna finds wide applications where more than 10% of impedance bandwidth with gain more than 6 dBi is needed. One of the popular techniques to realize single patch wideband and high gain design is by using the resonant slots inside the air suspended patch. In the literature, wideband designs of microstrip antenna using variations of pair of rectangular slots (E-shape) have been widely reported. Although many such slot cut designs are reported but a detailed comparison in between them in terms of the resonant modes present to yield wider bandwidth and their effects on the realized gain and radiation pattern, are not discussed. The present paper addresses this research gap and provides a detailed study for various modified variations of E-shape microstrip antennas. Different configurations using multiple number of slots have been studied on a given substrate thickness and the feed condition. In each design, effects of the slots on patch resonant modes for achieving the wideband response are explained. It is observed that the use of multiple number of symmetric slots yield maximum bandwidth with symmetrical gain and pattern, whereas the use of asymmetrical or offset slots leads to the increased cross polar radiation resulting in the variation in broadside gain. Thus, present paper gives a detailed comparative study for various slot cut E-shape designs which is not presented in the reported literature.
Authors:Venkata A P Chavali, Amit A Deshmukh
Submitted On:15-09-2020
Pages:597-607
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 58
Manuscript Title:Analytical Study of Using Non-Invasive Antenna Probe in Hyperthermia Applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-9-72011
Abstract:In this paper, a detailed analytical study of using an improved antenna probe for hyperthermia applications is presented. The proposed antenna exhibits a narrow beam width with more focused energy over the mid-point of the antenna probe. The antenna probe operates in the ISM band around 2.45 GHz. In order to verify the probe performance, extensive simulations have been carried out using both HFSS (Finite Element “FEM” solver) and CSTMWS (Finite Integration Technique “FIT” solver) packages. A four-layer human body model consists of skin, fat, muscle, and bone is incorporated into the simulations to study the maximum achievable penetration depth and the maximum SAR inside the muscle layer. A water bolus is introduced to be place in front of the skin layer for assuring the cooling process. A complete heat distribution maps at different input power levels are obtained. The proposed probe achieves very good penetration depth (around 36.85 mm) inside the human body model, which makes it a good candidate for hyperthermia applications.
Authors:Ayman Elboushi , A. Sebak
Submitted On:17-09-2020
Pages:608-615
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 36
OPTICAL RELATED PAPERS
Manuscript Title:Sensitivity Analysis of a Refractive Index Comparator having Long Period Fiber Grating Surrounded with Photonic Crystal Cladding
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-8-72002
Abstract:In order to compare and sense the low refractive index contrast of liquid, a long period fiber grating (LPG) surrounded with photonic crystal cladding (PCC) is proposed. The holes of PCC can be infiltrated with a reference liquid to modify its refractive index. The sensing mechanism of this PCC-LPG depends on the change of the resonance peak loss against the cladding refractive index and the ambient medium refractive index. The proposed PCC-LPG used to compare the infiltrated reference liquid with the ambient refractive index. The sensitivity 2646 dB/RIU has been obtained in the ambient refractive index range 1.32 to 1.34 when the infiltrated liquid in the cladding at refractive index equal to 1.33. Similarly the sensitivity of 1991 dB/RIU is obtained for the ambient refractive index change from 1.33 to 1.35 as the infiltrate liquid in the cladding holes at the refractive index 1.34. This sensor shows a novel property that when ambient medium refractive index equal to the refractive index of the infiltrate liquid in the cladding holes, then high sensitivity and high loss peak in transmission spectrum is observed. The results suggest that liquid infiltrated PCC-LPG can be used in the development of high sensitive refractive index sensor for compare and monitor ambient medium refractive index in real time applications.
Authors:M. P. Srinivasa Rao, Vivek Singh, Kh S Singh
Submitted On:21-08-2020
Pages:616-622
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 25
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