INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY

VOL. 15, NO. 4, JULY 2020
A PUBLICATION OF THE
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY (IAMOT)
Reno, NV 89511, U.S.A.
JULY 2020 VOLUME 15 NUMBER 4 IJMOT ISSN: 1553-0396
Banmali S Rawat

Editor-In-Chief

MESSAGE FROM EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
MICROWAVE RELATED PAPERS
Manuscript Title:Microstrip Power Amplifier Design for ISM Band Using Balanced Amplifier Topology
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-2-11910
Abstract:This work presents the design and development of a broadband power amplifier (BPA) suitable for ISM band. The broadband PA design is based on the balanced amplifier topology, using the hybrid coupler and advanced GaAs FET transistor technology in order to produce a good broadband performance on all the critical parameters. By utilizing the balanced amplifier design topology, the circuit yields excellent linearity and low return loss over a broad-bandwidth. And by using the hybrid coupler in the balanced amplifier topology reduces the size compared to conventional balanced PA topology. The broadband power amplifier was designed on an Epoxy (FR4) substrate and exhibits a power gain greater than 17dB, a saturated output power of 17dBm at 1dB compression point and return loss (input and output) less than -15dB across the broadband frequency range from 2.4-2.5GHz.
Authors:Amine Rachakh, Larbi El Abdellaoui, Jamal Zbitou, Ahmed Errkik, Abdelali Tajmouati, Mohamed Latrach
Submitted On:02-02-2020
Pages:289-297
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 86
Manuscript Title:Improvement of Selectivity and Compactness of Novel CPW Reconfigurable LPF/BPF Using T-Shaped Resonators For Microwave Applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-2-11915
Abstract:A novel compact and high selective reconfigurable coplanar waveguide, wideband and high-rejection low-pass filter (LPF) based on T-shaped resonator is proposed in this paper. The comparison with the conventional filters shows that the proposed one warranty a high selectivity and very sharp cut-off frequency response with low insertion loss and achieves a wide reject band with 20 dB attenuation from 5.5 GHz to 10 GHz. The proposed filter is simulated and fabricated. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones. To realize the transformation from low-pass behaviors to band-pass characteristics, keeping the same parameters of the basic topology unchanged such as small size and simple design, a sample technique has been used. The entire area of the proposed structure of the compactness LPF is 14.3x20 mm2. The results indicate that the proposed filter design is suited for many areas of communications systems and microwave technology since it shows several benefits such as good wide rejection of out of band signals, small losses and high compactness.
Authors:Elmahjouby Sghir, Ahmed Errkik, Jamal Zbitou, Mohamed Latrach
Submitted On:08-02-2020
Pages:298-306
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 211
Manuscript Title:Optimizing the Antenna Characteristics Parameter in nxn Array double Bi-Ellipse Microstrip for Satellite Communications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-3-21928
Abstract:The purpose of this study is to design an nxn array double bi-ellipse microstrip antenna with optimal characteristic parameters. This is achieved by optimizing the width feeding stripline and its application for satellite communications. The numeric analysis with an empirical formula in the ellipse microstrip line array supports the optimally applied antenna in communications. The simulation created using the Finite Different Time Domain (FDTD) method shows the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), Reflection coefficient, Return Loss, and Gain with Vertical Linear Polarization. The results obtained are approximately VSWR < 2, Return Loss < -15dB and 7.53dB Gain in Omnidirectional radiation pattern for 8x2 and 8x4 variant arrays. Additionally, the measurements are approximately VSWR < 2, Return Loss < -15dB and 7.22dB Gain in Omnidirectional radiation pattern for 8x2 and 8x4 variant arrays. Therefore, the nxn array double bi-ellipse microstrip antenna's width is optimized to obtain a feeding stripline. This research proposed that the antenna array variation used in designing the bi-ellipse microstrip antenna was intended to widen the antenna's bandwidth. The calculation showed that varying values of the antenna were obtained from various array designs. The result showed that the more antenna array designed, the wider and higher the gain obtained in the radar satellite communication system.
Authors:Putu Artawan, Mashuri, Yono Hadi Pramono
Submitted On:11-03-2020
Pages:307-317
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 64
Manuscript Title:Triple Notch Reconfigurable Parasitic Patch Monopole Antenna with Defected Ground Structure
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-4-21938
Abstract:A compact triple notch band monopole antenna is designed with the combination of rectangular monopole and parasitic patch elements. Corner truncated rectangular radiating element on the top side and defected ground structure on the bottom side are perfectly matched with 50-ohm impedance feed line. Two half circle shaped parasitic patches are added adjacent to the feed line and connected through via hole to the defected ground structure (DGS). These parasitic patches providing good radiation characteristics at higher operating bands. The proposed antenna providing triple wide notch band characteristics between 4-6 GHz of WLAN band, 7.6-9.8 GHz of satellite communication applications and 10.5-11.5 GHz. The fabricated antenna occupying the dimension of 35X22X1.6 mm on FR4 substrate and the measured results providing excellent correlation with simulation results.
Authors:M L S N S Lakshmi1,, B T P Madhav, Habibulla Khan, M Venkateswara Rao, G L Madhumati
Submitted On:06-04-2020
Pages:318-324
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 63
Manuscript Title:Using Effective Codebook in Hybrid Precoding for MIMO MM-Wave Communication
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-4-21944
Abstract:Currently, the research concentrates on optimizing the digital (baseband) or analog (RF) at the transmitter and the receiver separately. However, this optimization is not energy-efficient for the mmWave massive MIMO communications. This is because a radio frequency (RF) chain per antenna element is needed, which leads to a significant number of RF chains for the massive antennas. Hybrid precoder is of interest when it provides the low dimensional precoding that can be done in the digital domain for the baseband and the fewer RF chains (baseband precoder). Some studies focus on the implementation of finding the hybrid precoder based on the criterion of the maximization of the channel capacity. However, the search algorithms for the optimum hybrid precoder still have not high capacity, such as using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) or the much timeconsuming search for this optimal precoder when using the exhaustive search. The article suggests that applying the hierarchical search can support the search for the optimal hybrid precoder faster than the exhaustive search while providing higher capacity than the SVD search algorithm. The paper also uses simulations to describe the increase in the channel capacity that was made clear when using the hierarchical search algorithm.
Authors:Hoai Trung Tran
Submitted On:13-04-2020
Pages:325-334
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 33
Manuscript Title:Performance evaluation and optimization of 5G Radio Access Network with Higher order Sectorisation
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-4-21950
Abstract:In this paper energy efficiency of a 5G radio access network (RAN) is evalua experimental analysis and system level simulation. Performances of 5G radio access network are measured first after deployment of higher order sectorisation (HOS) in terms of considered Key performance indicators (KPIs). It is seen that network efficiency can be increased in terms of coverage and capacity as a result of higher sectorisation due to reuse of spectral resources after dividing the coverage area of a cell into sectors across all the cell sites. However with increase in the number of sectors, Bas (BS) power consumption increases proportionally. Hence energy consumption of Base station for the HOS-enabled 5G New Radio (NR) here using a proposed adaptive optimization technique where reconfiguration of base station is carried out to increase or decrease the number of sectors in accordance with the busy hour unlike previous studies where it was carried out using average traffic. The results of this proposed method show considerable improvement in energy saving in comparison to the existing techniques.
Authors:Saraju Prasad Padhy, Madhusmita Panda, Srinivas Sethi, Aruna Tripathy
Submitted On:24-04-2020
Pages:335-344
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 32
Manuscript Title:Electromagnetic Modeling of Body Tissues at Microwave and Millimeter-wave Frequencies for Monitoring Vital Signs with CW Radar
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-5-21955
Abstract:In this paper, an electromagnetic analysis of the heart and surrounding tissues is performed. In the diagnosis of vital signs of the heart with different modulations of continuous wave, the amplitude and phase return signal information is used. The millimeter wave passes through the surrounding tissues of the thorax and reaches the heart. Determining the effects of these layers on the wave is necessary for radar processing. For this purpose, the electromagnetic properties of the tissues are estimated at millimeter frequencies. Factor complex dielectric and conductivity in millimeter-wave by combining experimental and theoretical achievements constitute the necessary database. Two characteristics of microwave and millimeter-wave diagnostic systems combine to act effectively. The first is the penetration characteristics through tissues. The second is the use of sensitive phase fluctuation measurements. The exact details of the effect of the structure of the heart and the surrounding tissues on the modulation of the continuous wave radar are essential. The Phase and attenuation coefficient and impedance layer were calculated using the initial parameters. The reflection coefficient of the layers was calculated Based on the theory of reciprocating waves in the structure of several flat layers and the concept of total wave impedance. The complete multi-layered wave analysis method in order to provide for better and improved exact details. This electromagnetic analysis is one of the main pillars of millimeter wave radar design in detecting vital signs.
Authors:Habibollah Zolfkhani
Submitted On:01-05-2020
Pages:345-353
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 39
Manuscript Title:A Study on the Characteristics of Antenna with Different Triangular Patch Array Structures
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-5-21959
Abstract:In this paper, we propose the improvement of antenna gain and radiation pattern through changes in the array structure of a triangular patch antenna. As an array element, the triangular patch antenna has an inset structure that operates at 24 GHz. The gain improved by changing the basic array structure from 2 × 6 to 3 × 6; moreover, the beam pattern was also improved through a tree structure arrangement by reducing the side lobe. The substrate used for the fabrication of antennas was a 0.51-mm thick TLC substrate from TACONIC, and its dielectric constant was 3.2. The gain of each array structure was 6.16, 14.37, and 9.94 dBi for the 2 × 6, 3 × 6, and tree structures, respectively, and the half power bandwidths (HPBWs) on the E-plane were 10°, 10°, and 24°, respectively. Although the number of array elements in the tree structure and the 2 × 6 structure were both 12, the gain and the gain difference from that of the side lobe improved, while the HPBW increased by 12°. We confirmed that it is possible to improve the gain and reduce the size of the side lobe by using the tree array structure of a triangular inset patch. In the future, directivity should be improved by changing the array structure.
Authors:Sang Won Kang, Tae-Soon Chang
Submitted On:10-05-2020
Pages:354-359
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 68
Manuscript Title:Compact MIMO Antenna for LTE and 5G applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-5-21962
Abstract:A Novel compact fractal Vicsek MIMO antenna within the bands of (3.6 - 4.2), (4.4 - 4.9) and (5.15 - 5.925) GHz was designed. Two radiating elements with high isolation have been proposed for LTE and 5G applications. The proposed dimensions of the antenna were 12.5 × 37 mm2, and it had an inexpensive FR-4 substrate with a thickness copper of 0.8 mm, a dielectric constant (? = 4.4) and 0.035-mm thick copper lining. The small and simple fractal antenna demonstrated a high level of isolation and a lower ECC. These attributes are suitable for LTE and 5G applications, which are being introduced into Japanese markets. Both the simulated and measured results proved that the suggest method gives an excellent isolation performance. A high isolation of less than -19 dB, -24 dB and -34 dB at the centre frequency, and low ECC that was low 0.008, 0002 and 0.005. The fractal MIMO antenna was simulated, and the prototype was fabricated. The results showed that fractal MIMO antenna was able to cover the desired bands (3.6 - 4.2), (4.4 - 4.9) and (5.15-5.925) GHz. The major advantagesof this design compared to previous designs are asmaller size, higher isolation and better ECCvalues.
Authors:Ayman Mohammed Ibrahim, Imran Mohd Ibrahim, Noor Azwan Shairi
Submitted On:14-05-2020
Pages:360-368
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 55
Manuscript Title:Triple Band Dielectric Resonator Antenna Array Using Power Divider Network Technique for GPS Navigation/Bluetooth/Satellite Applications
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-5-21966
Abstract:A 1x4 cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA) array is successfully developed and presented in this paper. The claimed structure has introduced quarter wavelength transformer with power divider network. The adopted concept gives adequate response in terms of appropriate suppression, phase distribution and power division. By utilizing the aforesaid geometry, tri-band response has been achieved for various frequency ranges from 0.87 GHz to 1.04 GHz with 18% bandwidth, 2.37 GHz to 2.78 GHz with 17% bandwidth and 4.17 GHz to 5.21 GHz with 22% bandwidth, having peak gain of 2.43dBi, 7.72dBi, and 8.39dBi respectively. 1x4 element dielectric resonator antenna array are designed for comparison in terms of return loss, gain and radiation pattern. The proposed array is modelled using CST software. In order to verify the simulated result, the designed antenna is fabricated on FR-4 substrate and tested using VNA and anechoic chamber. The parametric analysis is carefully completed in order to fix key parameters such as microstrip line length, dielectric resonator height, and Defected Ground Structure (DGS). The analysis said that there is close agreement between the simulated and fabricated response. As the claimed antenna model resonates for the triple-band with aforesaid frequencies, it would be the appropriate candidate for GPS navigation/Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and satellite applications.
Authors:Anish Vahora, Killol Pandya
Submitted On:19-05-2020
Pages:369-378
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 38
Manuscript Title:Multi-Resonator Stacked Variations of Sectoral Microstrip Antennas For Wideband Response
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-5-21967
Abstract:Stacked and stacked gap coupled variations of sectoral microstrip antennas for broadband response has been proposed for varying sectoral angle. Bandwidth enhancement is observed in stacked and stacked gap coupled sectoral microstrip antennas due to the space optimization between fundamental modes of fed and stacked sectors. Optimum bandwidth of 74 % with a peak gain of 8.8 dBi is realized in stacked gap coupled sectoral microstrip antenna with 1200 sectors designed at 1500 MHz. This bandwidth is 23% wider in comparison with a single sectoral microstrip antenna. Broadside radiation pattern is exhibited over the entire bandwidth. Based on optimum configurations of stacked and stacked gap coupled sectoral microstrip antennas for varying sectoral angles, redesign guidelines for similar antennas at different frequencies is proposed. Structural simplicity, achievement of very large bandwidth and proposed redesign methodology makes the proposed antenna distinct from the reported antenna structures.
Authors:Venkata A P Chavali, Amit A Deshmukh, Pritish Kamble
Submitted On:19-05-2020
Pages:379-388
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 42
OPTICAL RELATED PAPERS
Manuscript Title:Theory and Model Analysis of Exciton Dependent Photo Characteristics in CNFET
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-4-21941
Abstract:The demonstration of near infra-red light absorbance in Single-walled Carbon Nano Tubes (SWCNTs) has opened up new possibilities for nano-optoelectronic applications. But under optical absorption in nanoscale SWCNTs, generation of strongly bound excitons of energy 300 – 400 meV is considered as one of the challenges because of which the photoconversion efficiency is low. Hence knowing the fundamental principles of exciton formation, their separation and charge carrier transport is critical for the further enhancement of SWCNT based photodetector performance. Due to One dimensional (1D) structure and high surface-to-volume ratio in SWCNTs, their optoelectronics properties become highly sensitive to an external surrounding environment. Hence, internal and external electric field and use of high dielectric materials can be used along with SWCNTs to scale exciton binding energy. An analytical and TCAD simulation models are developed for SWCNT Field Effect Transistor (CNFET) photodetector to observe the effects of variation in gate oxide dielectric thickness and strength on its optical absorbance. It focuses on how the external field, surrounding material as well as structural dependence in SWCNTs can be utilized to scale the exciton energy and hence increasing phot generation. The exciton binding energy is observed to scale with the increasing SWCNT diameter as well as gate oxide dielectric strength. From the photo characteristics analysis, it is observed that CNFET integrated with high dielectric exhibits superior performance with a significant rise in photocurrent. Finally, this compact model is verified with experimental results to affirm that the performance of CNFET phototransistor has a significant dependency on the dielectric strength and thickness of the gate oxide materials. The results offer important insights about the effects of structural limitations of SWCNT on optical generation and provide guidelines for technology development for this emerging photodetector. It is expected that applications of organic material in hybrid SWCNT based photodetectors will open the door for further absorbance improvement in SWCNTs.
Authors:Kalawati Patil, Lochan Jolly, B. K. Mishra
Submitted On:09-04-2020
Pages:389-398
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 16
Manuscript Title:Optimization of Coating Thickness on Optical Fiber via Layer-by-Layer Technique for pH Sensing Application
Manuscript Id:IJMOT-2020-5-21964
Abstract:Layer-by-layer (LbL) coating system developed capable to monitor the LbL coating process on optical fiber for sensor application in real-time basis. The objective was to determine the optimum number of bilayer coatings for best sensing performance. Multiple layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were coated on the surface of optical fiber core to create pH sensitive coating. The real-time monitoring of absorbance spectrum during coating process from 0 to 50 bilayers of PAH/PAA were done. The existence of the coating on the fiber were verified using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The monitoring results show that 30 bilayers of PAH/PAA coating has high absorbance of 0.87 OD. at 800 nm. The pH sensing performance of the fiber without PAH/PAA coating was compared with the 30 bilayers of PAH/PAA coated fiber. The best performance was obtained with 30 bilayers of PAH/PAA coated fiber with the sensitivity of 0.453 OD/pH and resolution of 0.0022 pH units.
Authors:K. M. Yatim, A. R. Johari, G. Krishnan, H. Bakhtiar, S. Daud, M. S. A. Aziz, S. W. Harun
Submitted On:18-05-2020
Pages:399-406
Action: [Full Paper] No. of Downloads: 37
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